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type of New Town:
> scale of autonomy
Reason of its existence:
The village Spijkenisse with only approximately 3700 inhabitants experienced an enormous growth during the sixties and grew to a big city, this was because of the location which was near the harbor of Rotterdam. In 1976 the town Spijkenisse had approximately 32.000 inhabitants, but this was not the end for Spijkenisse's growth. Spijkenisse was named by the government as growth core in 1977. This meant that Spijkenisse was one of the cities in the Netherlands which had to create a bunch of dwellings within only a few years. Spijkenisse had the task to realize no less than 16.500 dwellings within 15 years. Now a days Spijkenisse has approximately 75.000 inhabitants, and this number will increases with the 6.000 dwellings still to come.
Means of existence:
This sudden growth caused a few problems for the city Spijkenisse. Is it still a village or is it a city? Was it a part of Rotterdam or did it have its own identity? There are a lot of people moving from Rotterdam to Spijkenisse and it seems that the city is losing its own identity. Therefore the city has made a plan which involves giving the heart of the city some ambiance and luxury.
The new town of Spijkenisse is located in the south of the Netherlands near one of the biggest cities in the Netherlands, namely Rotterdam. Around 300 B.C. the first dwellings were founded along the creeks by small families which held sheeps, cows, goats, pigs and horses. This place was perfect for hunting and fishing because of the density of trees and the water flowing through this area.
Biography of the town:
The first time the name 'Spijkenisse', which was called 'Spickenisse' at that time, is recorded, originated from 1231. One explanation for the name is the shape of the land. 'Spickenisse' which means 'spitse neus' (sharp nose) could refer to a peninsula in the area.
The village Spijkenisse was founded in the south eastern corner, next to a creek which lead to the old Maas. The northern banks were raised and paved, and the main street of Spijkenisse was build on this location (Voorstraat). In the next few centuries this dike became the core of the village with behind this dike a ring of houses which surrounded the church of Spijkenisse.
Spijkenisse was the victim of several floods, namely in 1530, 1532 and 1570. There were many deaths and these floods were the cause of misery and poverty. Spijkenisse also had many fires where many farms and houses were destroyed. One of the biggest fires, in 1648, made almost half the population of Spijkenisse homeless.
Spijkenisse was pretty much isolated from the mainland until the realization of a bridge, which connected Spijkenisse to the city of Rotterdam. Before this bridge Spijkenisse had almost no change of inhabitants, because of this bridge the diversity of the inhabitants of Spijkenisse changed a lot.